Thursday, June 21, 2012

Stages Of Alzheimer's Disease: Different Classifications


The Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease are described through different classifications.
The most common classifications systems are:
- Three Stages of Alzheimer’s;
- Seven Stages of Alzheimer.

Some doctors also use a diagnostic framework with five or six levels for understanding the symptoms of the disease.
Progression through these stages of Alzheimer's Disease may last from 8 to 10 years.

These figures are difficult to establish, while it depends extremely from the moment the diagnose is definitely set.
There are cases described of people living nearly 20 years from the time neuron change first occurs.

Great Help

The systems describing the stages of Alzheimer’s Disease provide a great help to understand how the disease is going to develop. This will be helpful for making future plans.

It is important to note however that the progress differs from patient to patient. Not all symptoms are the same and the rate of development of the disease varies from case to case.

Generally spoken we can say people with Alzheimer’s die an average of four to six years after diagnosis. The duration of the disease can vary from three to 20 years, taking into account that the first period often goes unnoticed.

The Different Classifications of the Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

The three stages classification describes the disease in:
1. Mild/Early
2. Moderate/Middle
3. Severe/Late

The other classification systems provide more details in the symptoms of the disease.

The seven stages classification system distinguishes Alzheimer’s Disease as follows:
1. No impairment
2. Very mild decline
3. Mild decline
4. Moderate decline
5. Moderately severe decline
6. Severe decline
7. Very severe decline

Below we describe the three stages classification as an example of these classification systems. This also gives you an insight in what to expect.

The 3 stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

Stage 1 of the Three Stages Classification: Mild/Early
This stage normally has a duration of 2 to 4 years.
The symptoms in this first of the 3 stages of Alzheimer’s Disease are:
- Recent conversation, appointments and happenings are forgotten directly after they happened. Sometimes they have difficulties in using the right words and understanding language.
- They repeat the same story a couple of times the same day.
- Problems with writing and using objects like the remote control of the TV set or mobile phones become difficult.
- They need reminders for daily activities.

During the development of the disease, the degree of memory loss progresses.

It’s not so rare if they get lost, even in the neighborhood of their homes. They may get problems in handling money and paying bills and need more time to complete normal daily tasks. More and more they have difficulties in making the right decisions, they exhibit rapid mood swings and their character changes.
This is the stage most people are diagnosed.

Stage 2 of the Three Stages Classification: Moderate/Middle
This stage takes normally 2 to 10 years (this is also an explanation for the difference in total duration of the disease)

In this stage you’ll find the consequences of the damage occurring in those areas of the mind that control language, logical reasoning, sensory processing, and realistic thoughts:
- They have increasing difficulties in solving problems.
- The growing degree of amnesia makes increasing problems in daily life.
- Confused speech, illogical reasoning, confusion about events that occur and also about time and place are seen more and more.
- They tend to get lost in familiar settings, not knowing any longer where to store the dishes after washing-up.
- Many patients suffer from insomnia and mood or behavioral symptoms worsen.
- Almost 80 percent of the Alzheimer’s patients have emotional and behavioral problems that worsen at moments of stress and changes of life.
- Sluggishness, stiffness, shakiness and worsening in walking affect the mobility and coordination.
- They may have hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia, and may behave impulsively.

Their caregivers should provide them with structure, reminders and assistance with activities of daily living.

Stage 3 of the Three Stages Classification: Severe/Late
The duration of this third stage of Alzheimer’s Disease is: 1 to 3 and more years.
The main symptoms of this stage are:
- The past and present are confused.
- They don’t recognize familiar people (even their spouse and children) and places (like not remembering their own living room).
- Verbal skills difficulties, even loss of these.
- They are no longer capable to care for themselves.
- Walking problems, increasingly chances to fall to possible immobility.
- Increasingly risk of choking caused by problems with swallowing.
- Problems with bladder and bowel control, susceptible for infections.
- Extreme problems with mood, behavioral problems, hallucinations, and delirium.

The patients in this stage need total support and care. They often die from infections or pneumonia.

Care Of The Elderly: What Comes To It If You Have To Take Care For An Elderly Person?

What is Care for the Elderly?

All types of care that target the older fellow-man is taken together as care of the elderly. Sometimes this is also called "elder care" or "long-term care".

Because of the decreasing muscular strength, problems with balance and possibly also mental deterioration, some older people need a certain level of assistance with day-to-day living.

Most of the time this assistance is about long-term care. In some cases there is only a temporary assistance needed to rehabilitate from an injury or a light Attack. Or they need a new way of handling day-to-day activities to overcome the limitations coming with aging.

Care of the elderly is distinguished in different levels:
- Home care by relatives (like spouse and children) or professional caregivers;
- Daycare (for one or more days a week) in a specialized facility;
- Full care in a nursing facility.

The Shortcomings of Old Age

Getting older is something we all have to deal with. The signs are clear when we look at our youthful appearance (that disappears).

Maybe there comes a day for you to take care of an elderly person. Please keep in mind to treat them with respect and understanding. After all they have to deal with their feelings of loosing their independence, still being adult human beings.

Aspects to take into account:

- Deteriorating physical condition.
This is the most important aspect to remember when taking care of an elderly person: that their physiological condition is worsening: The decreasing quality of hearing, sight and tactile sense are the most evident.

Pay attention to louder speaking and looking in their direction when talking to them. Ensure good conditions for viewing, such as more and clearer light.
They also are often more sensitive to pain and touch.

- Not being able to control a couple of aspects of their life.
Clearly identifiable and perhaps easier to accept is the decline in bodily functions. However many care givers (especially close relatives) have problems to cope with the decreasing memory.

It's essential for you to remember that they can't help it. They just don't remember, even if you talked about it just one minute ago. Maybe you can think of a record that you love to hear and play it over and over again. The record player doesn't bother how many times you repeat the same record.

Try to empathize with their distress about their not remembering all kinds of stuff and just repeat without confronting them with that.

- Decreasing immune system and capacity of keeping their temperature.
Most elderly have a very thin skin. The circulation of their blood decreases causing them to have problems in keeping themselves warm enough.

If they sit in a draught, give them a plaid or a cardigan.

While their immune system isn't working as well as it used to, they will also be more susceptible to bacterial infections and viruses. Keep them as happy and healthy as possible. Maybe it is time to add some vitamins and minerals into their meals.

Since they sometimes don't sleep very well, provide them with lots of rest.

- Mental changes.
Dealing with aging and increasing dependency may have its effect on their mental well-being as well. Probably they are confronted with the death of good friends or siblings.

Sometimes they want to talk about it. It is also possible they keep it for themselves. You need be compassionate and listen.

Care of the Elderly With Dementia or Alzheimer's Disease

Dementia and certainly Alzheimers Disease demand both an intensive type of care. These affections are identified with an increasing demand for care, because of the (sometimes) fast decline of mental and physical condition of the patients.

For caregivers, especially the relatives who most of the time are supporting during the first stages, this is a heavy burden. At a certain moment you have to decide about bringing your loved one to a care facility outside their familiar environment. It is hard to be responsible for.

What is a Foot Orthotics?

This article defines foot orthotics and provides reasons why people need help from foot orthotics. It also gives example of orthotics and provides tips on how and where to get a foot doctor.

Article Body:

Foot orthotics is specially designed inserts that are worn by those individuals who have foot defects. The defects might be natural occurring or an injury due to an accident. Whatever the reason wearing these inserts often alleviates your foot pain. You can get your custom inserts at some pharmacies, medical facilities or an orthotics shop. If you are experiencing foot pain, it is best to consult with a specialist called a foot podiatrist. A custom insert is often recommended for patients who have high arches, flat feet or plantar fasciitis. Plantar fasciitis is pain that is felt underneath your heel. There are many causes such as walking a lot on hard surfaces, wearing shoes that are badly worn or offer very little support. The most important and general purpose of using this insert is to reduce pain on the foot that might be caused by a defect. Other reasons include:-

• To control the mobility of the joint or any other part that will be dangerous if left unsupported. If mobility is allowed the injury will be worse

• If the mobility is to be on particular direction then an orthotic will be used.

• They help when movement become impossible for an example a broken leg. The orthotic will aid in reducing pain and increasing stability.

• If an injury does not require a lot on pressure to be put on it. The orthotics is used to reduce pressure by adding thickness around the injury hence putting it far from any contact that might add pressure.

• They help in quick healing of an injury like a fractured leg. It discourages mobility of the injured part hence giving the muscle, ligaments and other tissue to regenerate.

• Apart from reducing unnecessary mobility on the injured part, they help also to maintain shape. Some injuries tend to cause swelling which might end up being permanent if pressure is not applied on the injury.

This type of medical practice is carried out by a specialist called a podiatrist. They must be licensed by the government before they are allowed to practice their specialty. If you need medical attention you should make sure that it is done in a credible facility. Make it your business to know if your healthcare professional is qualified and licensed to practice. You can do a search online to check for reviews and testimonials. Check with your family or friends if they have any recommendations for you.

We have different types of orthotics. For example; Orthosis of the Upper-arm, clavicle, shoulder, elbow, etc. This depends with the part of the body that is injured. Each is designed to fit and serve its purpose without causing any discomfort. They all come in different sizes in that, children and adults patients are sure to get an orthotics that fits them. Your healthcare professional will recommend where you can obtain an orthopedic device. You can get them at some pharmacies or medical facilities. However, if you are suffering from certain types of foot deformities such as high arches, flat feet or plantar fasciitis, a custom orthotics may help alleviate your pain. It is best to check with a reputable foot specialist for the latest treatment.

Fertility Assistance is Available

Waiting for a blessed arrival is heart-wrenching. When you want a baby, it seems that everyone around you is pregnant and happy. What can you do to speed up or help the process? Are you suffering from an inability to conceive? Have you had a full work-up by specially qualified medical personnel that know just how you feel and how to remedy the situation? At a fertility clinic, the specialists do the basic check- up initially to confirm you are in the best reproductive health. If there are issues, then it is important to begin to explore your options. Today, there are gynecologists, endocrinologists, reproductive endocrinologists, and reproductive surgeons, all trained for the special care needed when dealing with infertility issues. When dealing with infertility treatment, they understand the issues of family, pressure, and confidentiality for our clients. Dealing with the stress of infertility can be an attack on your basic beliefs and family goals. It is useful to discuss with your doctor all of the outside influences that are bringing you pressure at this time. Creating a new baby takes concentration and effort from all parties, not just the parents. The specialists work as teams to give you the best results just look at their wall of babies to see the tremendous and wonderful “happenings” here in the world of fertility assistance.

While reproduction seems as if it would come naturally, it really does not. There are lots of factors that go wrong. It only seems likely that a good medical check-up would be the first order of business if you have waited for a long time to be “expecting,” and no positive results on the pregnancy test.

The fertility clinics also offer in- vitro fertilization, removal of fibroids, removal of adhesions and scarring tissues, laparoscopy for surgical treatment of scar tissue and tumors. They offer hysteroscopy for evaluation of fertility issues and as another option to D and C. With a Hysteroscope, the doctor can see inside the uterus to search for existing fertility problems.

Endometriosis can cause fertility problems. This condition can be debilitating, painful, frightening and disheartening for the couple who wish to conceive. Sometimes this condition is caused by nodules or cysts in the uterus. Today, the newest treatments are available that causes the least damage to the uterus and allow us to help you restore your uterus to optimal reproductive conditions.

If you had your tubes tied when previously married, and want to start a new family with your new mate, surgeons can perform tubal reversals as a routine surgery. There are many surgical and non-surgical options for those wishing to conceive. Some clients need help with the surgical side, such as an adjustment of their current reproductive organs with a small non-invasive surgery to put things in shape. Other couples need more intervention, such as those who choose in-vitro fertilization. In any of these cases, rest assured that specialists can find a solution for your problem in the most relaxing and proficient way possible.

How The Medical Supply Industry Moved From Sterilization To Disposable Supplies?

Patient safety is a primary concern in all healthcare settings, from pediatrician’s offices to ambulances and cancer centers. One of the major threats to patients seeking medical care is the risk of nosocomial infections, which are infections caused by treatment in a hospital or other healthcare unit. If a viral or bacterial infection is transmitted from one patient to another, the second patient may suffer serious health consequences. Many hospital patients are especially vulnerable to infection due to weakened immune systems. Infections can spread among patients through exchanging bodily fluids, coughing, sneezing, and not washing hands. In addition, medical equipment that comes in contact with viruses or bacteria can spread cross-contamination.

Hospital-associated infections are a serious problem for patients and the healthcare industry. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) approximate that there are 1.7 million hospital-associated infections each year that cause nearly 100,000 deaths in the United States. However, hospital-associated infections are not a new concern. Historically, one of the main strategies to reduce the spread of infection has been to sterilize all equipment that is used for multiple patients.

Autoclaves use high heat and intense pressure to sterilize items. The autoclave has been used for over 100 years, and is generally very effective. Autoclaves are essential pieces of equipment in hospitals and many other medical settings.
Unfortunately, the autoclaving process is fallible and medical products may not, in fact, be sterile after autoclaving. Some plastics cannot be autoclaved because they would melt. In addition, while autoclave sterilization kills viruses, bacteria, and fungi, it is not effective against prions that cause diseases such as Mad Cow Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Even when autoclave sterilization is successful, it requires staff time and effort to operate the autoclave.

Disposable medical products are a relatively new alternative for safe, sterile medical equipment. Single-use disposables are designed to be cheap and convenient, and they are only used for one patient so there is no danger of cross-contamination. One of the first items specifically manufactured as a disposable medical product was the latex medical glove, which was manufactured in 1964 by Ansell. Today, the market for disposable medical supplies has grown to include needles, syringes, surgical gowns, scalpels, masks, and more.

The United States has the largest market for disposable medical supplies, although there is also a strong demand in Europe and Asia. As the general health market continues to expand, the disposable medical supply market is also expected to continue growing. Needles and syringes are currently the most popular disposable medical supplies. Pre-filled syringes are not only sterile, they also offer convenience and they help reduce the chance for medical errors.

In addition to enhancing patient safety, disposable medical supplies have become an essential part of protecting health care providers. Health care providers are exposed to many infections every day and they must be careful to safeguard their own health. Proper protective gear is the best way for medical practitioners to stay safe. Disposable medical supplies are can help protect doctors, nurses, and EMTs. For instance, health care providers should always wear gloves and change them frequently. Disposable gloves are available in latex or non-latex and in a range of colors and sizes. Other disposable medical products that are essential for personal protection include face masks, protective eye goggles, respirators, gowns, aprons and caps.

One criticism leveled against disposable medical products is the lack of sustainability, or the damage to the environment. Compared with long-lasting, reusable medical products, hospitals that choose single-use disposables create vast amounts of waste. It can be difficult to weigh the safety advantage of disposable medical supplies against a harmful environmental effect. One option is to increase the sustainability of disposable medical supplies. Manufacturers can reduce the amount of plastic they use in many items, such as instrument trays, without interfering with the product’s function. Unnecessary packaging can also be eliminated to help reduce overall waste. Other disposable supplies, such as exam table paper and exam gowns, can be made using recycled fibers.